A 13th century Tibetan thangka painting of Green Tara, artist unknown
A thangka (also called tangka, thanka, tanka, or Tibetan scroll painting) is a classical and stylised form of Nepalese and Tibetan painting, consisting of a painted picture panel surrounded by a textile mantle that is supported by scroll sticks and overlain with a silk cover. The mantle is typically constructed from a rich material, usually silk brocade, and the painting is generally executed in oils on treated cotton duck, although some notable exceptions occur, including pictures created from pigments ground from semi-precious stones, appliqué and silk or cotton embroidery. Thangkas typically depict important Buddhist motifs, the Wheel of Life, images of the Buddha, other Buddhist deities and mandalas being the most common. Thangka paintings are usually very intricate and detailed, with images inter-woven in a stylised geometric series of overlapping grids, taking many weeks or even months to complete. As stated by Wikipedia:
Thangkas overflow with symbolism and allusion. Because the art is explicitly religious, all symbols and allusions must be in accordance with strict guidelines laid out in Buddhist scripture. The artist must be properly trained and have sufficient religious understanding, knowledge, and background to create an accurate and appropriate thangka.
Thangkas fulfil several important functions for the practitioners of Tibetan Buddhism. The images are used to teach students and monks about the aspects of Buddha, describe important historical events and illustrate myths associated with important deities. Devotional images act as a focus during rituals and ceremonies and are often used as mediums through which prayers are offered and particular requests made. Most importantly, thangka art is a valuable meditation tool and offers a manifestation of the divine that is both visually and mentally stimulating.
From the 14th century onwards, Chinese painting had a significant influence on Tibetan art and by the 18th century, Tibetan painting echoed and incorporated many Chinese elements of detail and design. However the thangka itself is traditionally held to be a Nepalese invention introduced to Tibet by Princess Bhrikuti of Nepal who married Sron Tsan Gampo, the ruler of Tibet, around 620-632 CE. Because they could be easily rolled and transported, thangkas became increasingly popular among the nomadic monks of medieval Tibet who travelled extensively between rural communities and regional monasteries to provide religious instruction. They are still used today for teaching and are a familiar sight in both Nepal and Tibet, becoming increasingly common in the West along with the spread of eastern spirituality.
Thanka, Kashgar. Silk surround, oil painting on canvas.
You can buy this thanka here.
References and Further Reading
Thangka. Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thanka. Accessed 15th March 2011
Lipton, Barbara & Ragnubs, N.D. 1996 Treasures of Tibetan Art: Collections of the Jacques Marchais Museum of Tibetan Art. Oxford University Press, New York.
Shaftel, Anna Buddhist Art and Architecture: Tibetan Thangka Paintings http://www.buddhanet.net/thangkas.htm Accessed 15th March 2011
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Kashgar began through a love of travel.
In 1989 my father Bernard packed in his house painting business and set off for two years on a backpacking trek to the remotest corners of the world. When he finally arrived in the oasis city of Kashgar, China, he was so impressed with its history that he decided to start a new life collecting and selling exotic goods from all over the world. For 2000 years the legendary city of Kashgar was a melting pot of ideas and a key trading post on the historic Silk Road. It was this unique combination of philosophy and trade that my father wanted to recreate at home.
Starting in markets in 1991, he opened his first store in the Sydney suburb of Newtown in 1994. I gave up my own career as a government scientist to join him in 2000 and soon convinced my partner Ian to join us in what was to become the Family Business.
Today our version of Kashgar stocks a hugely diverse range of furniture, rugs, textiles, antiques, handicrafts and jewellery sourced from over twenty different countries including India, Nepal, Tibet, China, Thailand, Burma, Laos, the Philippines, Vietnam, Mexico, Peru, Turkey, Palestine, Syria, Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. Our collection includes contemporary and tribal silver and gold jewellery, a unique range of headhunting curios, antique Buddhist relics and a collection of one-off necklaces, earrings and bracelets that I design and create myself using the beads and jewellery making techniques of ethnic minorities from around the globe.
Kashgar is a philosophy as well as a store. We are committed to supporting traditional artisans and small village communities by selling authentic handcrafted goods which are personally collected by us. By supporting traditional methods of design and production we hope to encourage local cottage industries which have a low impact on the environment and help ethnic minorities maintain their self-sufficiency into the 21st Century. We are particularly committed to assisting women around the world and to this end have worked with several organisations including the Hua Bin Women's Union of Vietnam, the East Timorese Women's Association and Tikondane in Zambia. Time honoured means of craftsmanship and traditional ways of life are disappearing as people all over the world give up their identity in favour of jeans and T-shirts. We see our trade as a means of staving off the inevitable encroachment of the 21st century, assisting communities to decide for themselves which parts of the western world they wish to incorporate (medicine, education) and which they wish to reject (prostitution, drug production, begging and servitude to warlords). We encourage our customers to think of the handicrafts and artifacts they buy from us as an investment: a piece of history and a way of life that may soon be gone forever.
Kashgar has recently closed its retail outlet and gone completely online.
In the past our pieces appeared in many movies including The Hobbit, Mission Impossible 2, Queen of the Damned, Scooby Doo, Moulin Rouge and Wolverine, and in many televisions series, as well as in plays, commercials and exhibitions. We've found special pieces for individual customers as well as for film sets, event management companies, hotels, businesses, consulates and embassies. The uniqueness of our stock means that we are also very appealing to interior and fashion designers with a taste for the exotic.
There is something for everyone at Kashgar - collectors, the curious, those looking for a special present or for something unique to adorn the home. Most of our items are one-off specialties; other pieces we only stock in small quantities so as to continuously offer a wide and ever-changing range of interesting products. We are also packed with ideas for decorating home and work premises that will challenge your established concepts of design and storage.
Please enjoy - Linda Heaphy
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